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Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) have become common parts of modern concrete practice. The blending of two or three cementitious materials to optimize durability, strength, or economics provides owners, engineers, materials suppliers, and contractors with substantial advantages over mixtures containing only portland cement. However, these advances in concrete technology and engineering have not always been adequately captured in specifications for concrete. Users need specific guidance to assist them in defining the performance requirements for a concrete application and the selection of optimal proportions of the cementitious materials needed to produce the required durable concrete. The fact that blended cements are currently available in many regions increases options for mixtures and thus can complicate the selection process. Both Portland and blended cements have already been optimized by the manufacturer to provide specific properties (such as setting time, shrinkage, and strength gain). The addition of SCMs (as binary, ternary, or even more complex mixtures) can alter these properties, and therefore has the potential to impact the overall performance and applications of concrete. This report is the final of a series of publications describing a project aimed at addressing effective use of ternary systems. The work was conducted in several stages and individual reports have been published at the end of each stage.

Report Number

InTrans Project 05-241; Iowa DOT TPF-5(117); DTFH61-06-H-00011 Work Plans 12 and 19

Granting Agencies

Iowa Department of Transportation;

Federal Highway Administration



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File Size

10 MB