Veterinary practitioners and most livestock owners are aware of hypodermiosis and some of its consequences. These include hide damage due to the breathing holes cut in the skin, loin meat loss because of trimming away of encysted larvae, and the annoyance caused by the flies attacking the cattle causing them to run wildly with their tails arched characteristically over their backs. Cattle will stand in groups, or try to rid themselves of the flies by standing in ponds. Interference with grazing and the wild running by the cattle are responsible for decreased milk production and lowered weight gains.
"Complications of Hypodermiosis,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 24
, Article 7.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol24/iss3/7