The animal, a crossbred Belgian, was first seen on January 15, 1942, at which time there was evidence of colic with much pain. The hernial sac was hard, distended, and there was some edema of the surrounding tissue. The sac was oval in outline and about 10 by 6 inches in size. There was much pain on pressure over the area, the pulse rate was 60-70 per minute but regular and strong, the temperature was 102.5. A diagnosis of strangulated hernia was made and as attempts at manual reduction were in vain the owner was advised to dispose of the animal .
Hatch, Ray D.
"Perforated Umbilical Hernia in a Foal,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 4
, Article 13.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol4/iss3/13