Iowa State University Veterinarian Records, RS 22/6/0/9, University Archives, Special Collections Department, Iowa State University, http://www.add.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/arch/rgrp/22-6-0-9.html
Gastric dilation-volvulus (GVD) is a disease of many animal species and can be associated with a high mortality rate. The syndrome begins with a dilation of the stomach for some unknown reason and progresses through a complex series of events involving many organ systems. It is the purpose of this paper to review the relevant events occurring in the GDV and to relate the currently accepted forms of therapy.
"Gastric Dilation – Volvulus in the Dog,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 43
, Article 3.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol43/iss3/3