Iowa State University Veterinarian Records, RS 22/6/0/9, University Archives, Special Collections Department, Iowa State University, http://www.add.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/arch/rgrp/22-6-0-9.html
Calf mortality is important economically in dairy and beef herds. Calf losses substantially reduce the returns from cattle raising. The economic losses are those derived from the loss of the calf, planning and labor already invested by the herdsman, and veterinary expenses from obstetric and post-natal care. Indirect losses are infertility, chronic disease, and impaired development of the calf.
Minor, J. Todd and Riese, Richard L.
"Neonatal Calf Care,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 46
, Article 4.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol46/iss1/4