Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) or malignant head catarrh has been recognized for over 125 years as a fatal disease of cattle and some wild ruminants. Found world wide, it is prevalent in Australia, the British Isles, Canada, the United States and Africa. The causative agent is believed to be a herpesvirus, but it is thought that tissue damage is the result of hypersensitivity to viral antigens and not direct effects of the virus.
Arnold, Jeff D. and Miskimins, D. W.
"Bovine Malignant Catarrhal Fever,"
Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 48
, Article 3.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iowastate_veterinarian/vol48/iss1/3