Journal or Book Title
Journal of Fluids Engineering
Flow visualization and characterization of multiphase flows have been the quest of many fluid mechanicians. The process is fairly straight forward only when there is good optical access (i.e., the vessel is not opaque or there are appropriate viewing ports) and the flow is transparent, implying a very low volume fraction of the dispersed phase; however, when optical access is not good or the fluid is opaque, alternative methods must be developed. Several different noninvasive visualization tools have been developed to provide high-quality qualitative and quantitative data of various multiphase flow characteristics, and overviews of these methods have appeared in the literature. X-ray imaging is one family of noninvasive measurement techniques used extensively for product testing and evaluation of static objects with complex structures. X-rays can also be used to visualize and characterize multiphase flows. This paper provides a review of the current status of X-ray flow visualization and details various X-ray flow visualization methods that can provide qualitative and quantitative information about the characteristics of complex multiphase flows.
Heindel, Theodore J., "A Review of X-Ray Flow Visualization With Applications to Multiphase Flows" (2011). Mechanical Engineering Publications. 20.