Campus Units

Mechanical Engineering, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Virtual Reality Applications Center

Document Type


Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Advanced Materials Technologies





First Page





Complex graphene electrode fabrication protocols including conventional chemical vapor deposition and graphene transfer techniques as well as more recent solution‐phase printing and postprint annealing methods have hindered the wide‐scale implementation of electrochemical devices including solid‐state ion‐selective electrodes (ISEs). Herein, a facile graphene ISE fabrication technique that utilizes laser induced graphene (LIG), formed by converting polyimide into graphene by a CO2 laser and functionalization with ammonium ion (NH4+) and potassium ion (K+) ion‐selective membranes, is demonstrated. The electrochemical LIG ISEs exhibit a wide sensing range (0.1 × 10−3–150 × 10−3 m for NH4+ and 0.3 × 10−3–150 × 10−3 m for K+) with high stability (minimal drop in signal after 3 months of storage) across a wide pH range (3.5–9.0). The LIG ISEs are also able to monitor the concentrations of NH4+ and K+ in urine samples (29–51% and 17–61% increase for the younger and older patient; respectively, after dehydration induction), which correlate well with conventional hydration status measurements. Hence, these results demonstrate a facile method to perform in‐field ion sensing and are the first steps in creating a protocol for quantifying hydration levels through urine testing in human subjects.


This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Kucherenko, Ivan S., Delaney Sanborn, Bolin Chen, Nate Garland, Michael Serhan, Erica Forzani, Carmen Gomes, and Jonathan C. Claussen. "Ion‐Selective Sensors Based on Laser‐Induced Graphene for Evaluating Human Hydration Levels Using Urine Samples." Advanced Materials Technologies 5, no. 6 (2020): 1901037, which has been published in final form at DOI: 10.1002/admt.201901037. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim



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Available for download on Tuesday, May 04, 2021

Published Version