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Plant Pathology and Microbiology

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Published Version

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Scientific Reports



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Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is an obligate parasite that relies on the secretion of effector proteins to manipulate host cellular processes that favor the formation of a feeding site within host roots to ensure its survival. The sequence complexity and co-evolutionary forces acting upon these effectors remain unknown. Here we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly representing the early life stages of SCN in both a compatible and an incompatible host interaction to facilitate global effector mining efforts in the absence of an available annotated SCN genome. We then employed a dual effector prediction strategy coupling a newly developed nematode effector prediction tool, N-Preffector, with a traditional secreted protein prediction pipeline to uncover a suite of novel effector candidates. Our analysis distinguished between effectors that co-evolve with the host genotype and those conserved by the pathogen to maintain a core function in parasitism and demonstrated that alternative splicing is one mechanism used to diversify the effector pool. In addition, we confirmed the presence of viral and microbial inhabitants with molecular sequence information. This transcriptome represents the most comprehensive whole-nematode sequence currently available for SCN and can be used as a tool for annotation of expected genome assemblies.


This article is published as Gardner, Michael, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Dmitry Korkin, and Melissa G. Mitchum. "Novel global effector mining from the transcriptome of early life stages of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines." Scientific reports 8 (2018): 2505. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-20536-5.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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