Journal or Book Title
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
A critical period hypothesis linking early experiences with both racial discrimination and conduct disorder (CD) with subsequent drug use was examined in a panel of 889 African American adolescents (age 10.5 at time 1) and their parents. Analyses indicated that these early experiences did predict use by the adolescents at time 3 (T3)–5 years later. These relations were both direct and indirect, being mediated by an increase in affiliation with friends who were using drugs. The relations existed controlling for parents’ reports of their use, discrimination experiences, and their socioeconomic status (SES). The impact of these early experiences on African American families is discussed.
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Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Gibbons, Frederick X.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Gerrard, Meg; Cleveland, Michael J.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Simons, Ronald L.; and Brody, Gene H., "Early experience with racial discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: A critical period hypothesis" (2007). Psychology Publications. 105.