Location

Snowmass Village, CO

Start Date

1-1-1995 12:00 AM

Description

In practice, the single most critical problem limiting the application of membrane processes for liquid separation is fouling [1]. The flux decline which accompanies fouling affects the operational reliability and economics in microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis [1]. Fouling occurs predominately on the membrane surface due to the deposition of one or more system constituents including organics, sparingly soluble inorganic salts dissolved in the feed stream, and colloidal and/or paniculate matter. In addition, a gel layer can be formed from organic molecules in the system due to concentration effects adjacent to the membrane surface and compaction can occur when the operating pressure causes a decrease in membrane thickness. Although the occurrence of fouling is often inferred from a time-dependent decline in flux, the interpretation of results in such studies is complicated by the fact that during operation gel formation and compaction as well as fouling may all occur simultaneously [2]. Since each of these processes can produce a flux decrease [3], it is often impossible to distinguish the particular combination of phenomena associated with an observed overall flux decline [1, 4].

Book Title

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Volume

14A

Chapter

Chapter 4: Transducers, Sensors, and Process Control

Section

Sensors and Process Control

Pages

1167-1173

DOI

10.1007/978-1-4615-1987-4_148

Language

en

File Format

application/pdf

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Jan 1st, 12:00 AM

Real-Time Nondestructive Characterization of Membrane Compaction and Fouling

Snowmass Village, CO

In practice, the single most critical problem limiting the application of membrane processes for liquid separation is fouling [1]. The flux decline which accompanies fouling affects the operational reliability and economics in microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis [1]. Fouling occurs predominately on the membrane surface due to the deposition of one or more system constituents including organics, sparingly soluble inorganic salts dissolved in the feed stream, and colloidal and/or paniculate matter. In addition, a gel layer can be formed from organic molecules in the system due to concentration effects adjacent to the membrane surface and compaction can occur when the operating pressure causes a decrease in membrane thickness. Although the occurrence of fouling is often inferred from a time-dependent decline in flux, the interpretation of results in such studies is complicated by the fact that during operation gel formation and compaction as well as fouling may all occur simultaneously [2]. Since each of these processes can produce a flux decrease [3], it is often impossible to distinguish the particular combination of phenomena associated with an observed overall flux decline [1, 4].