Data on family composition, place of residence of husband and wife during the socialization period of childhood (age 5-19 years), educational attainment, and current age and occupation of husband were obtained from a random sample of 2,178 households in Des Moines, Iowa.
The 1,693 households that included a married couple were divided fairly equally among four groups according to where the husband lived the majority of the years between the ages of 5 and 19: farm reared (26 percent), rural nonfarm reared (21 percent), urban reared (23 percent) and natives of Des Moines (30 percent). Wives were distributed similarly in relation to childhood residence, but the wives' socialization experiences corresponded to the husbands' in less than half of all cases. As a consequence, most couples represented mixed backgrounds: 46 percent contained at least one spouse with farm or rural background, and only 8.5 percent were composed of husbands and wives who always had lived in Des Moines.
Bauder, Ward W. and Burchinal, Lee G.
"Farm migrants to the city: A comparison of the status, achievement, community and family relations of farm migrants with urban migrants and urban natives in Des Moines, Iowa,"
Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station): Vol. 35
, Article 1.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/researchbulletin/vol35/iss534/1