1. Cows' whole milk, plus a standard corn belt ration of mixed shelled corn (yellow is preferred, however) self-fed, high grade 60 percent protein meat meal tankage self-fed, plus block salt, gave good results in the raising of orphan pigs.
2. While protein modification of co\\'s' milk with casein, blood meal and linseed oilmeal for the pigs in suckling stage gave somewhat better results than cows' milk alone, yet in view of the slight advantages secured, the addition of casein, or blood meal, or linseed oilmeal, when both meat meal tankage and milk are used, is in general practice somewhat questionable.
One quart of cows' whole milk per pig daily in three or more feeds is assumed to be a fair practical allowance when allowed with a self-fed free-choice ration of shelled corn, preferably yellow, meat meal tankage, and salt.
4. Feeding the milk three times daily after the pigs are well started, this along' with a free-choice self-fed shelled co I'll , meat meal tankage and salt ration, appears to be a practical feeding frequency. While more frequent feeding, especially early in trials, apparently gives better results, allowing the milk three times daily in the latter stages seemed to be good practice under the conditions of our experiments. Extremely young pigs may often be given a ,late night feeding to good advantage.
5. The crude nutritive ratio in some of our successful and comparable orphan pig tests averaged about 1 :3.8, which means that the feed mixture carried, for each pound of protein, 3.8 pounds of carbohydrate equivalent. This ratio evidence must be considered as "appetite manifestation" evidence. Inasmuch as the pigs did well on this ratio it suggests its approximation in practice.
Evvard, John M.; Glatfelter, G. V.; and Wallace, Quintin W.
"Raising orphan pigs, I. Protein modifications of cows' whole milk frequency of feeding nutritive ratio studies,"
Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station): Vol. 5
, Article 1.
Available at: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/researchbulletin/vol5/iss79/1