Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Agricultural Education and Studies

First Advisor

Robert A. Martin


This study was conducted to identify and analyze the training needs of Agricultural Technicians (ATs), the field-level extension agents, in professional competency areas of agricultural extension related to the educational process. The objectives were to: (1) identify inservice training needs of ATs in the identified areas; (2) determine relationships between the perceived training needs of ATs and the training needs of ATs as perceived by extension supervisors; (3) determine relationships between ATs' and extension supervisors' perceived level of importance to extension; (4) investigate the relationships between individual demographic data and the perceived training needs of ATs; (5) identify the preferences of ATs and extension supervisors in the identified delivery methods for training of ATs; and (6) determine relationships between the ATs' and extension supervisors' preferences in those methods;A survey questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to collect data. Data were obtained from a sample of 186 ATs, stratified by district, and 41 extension supervisors. Data were analyzed using frequencies, means, standard deviation, t-Tests, Pearson-product-moment correlations and one-way analysis of variance;The seven major professional competency areas of agricultural extension included in the study were extension organization and administration, program planning and development, extension communications and teaching methods, extension teaching, evaluation of extension programs and activities, social values and structure, and personal development. Delivery methods included were fortnightly/biweekly training, centralized short-term courses, centralized long-term courses, video cassette, and closed-circuit television;The areas receiving the highest and lowest ratings by both the ATs and extension supervisors concerning the need for training were "extension teaching" and "social values and structure," respectively. There were no significant differences in the perceptions of ATs and extension supervisors in any of the seven areas. There was no significant correlation between age or length of service in extension and the perceptions of ATs on the level of training needed. The analysis of variance test showed significant differences among perceptions of ATs in the five administrative divisions of Sabah in all areas except "extension teaching" at 0.01 or 0.05 level. On preferences for the delivery methods, there was a significant difference in the perceptions of ATs and extension supervisors in "centralized long-term courses/workshops at the Sabah Agricultural Training Center (ATC)" at the 0.05 level. A training model for ATs was also developed.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Abdul Rahim Awang



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

192 pages