Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Textiles and Clothing

First Advisor

Mary A. Littrell


This study describes how Iowa women tourists differ in their travel behavior, souvenir purchases, and the status of textiles and clothing in the souvenir market. Interviews characterized 42 women, half each in the early-adulthood (EA) and middle-adulthood (MA) eras of Levinson (1978, 1986). Seven were unmarried. Reported annual family incomes were \75,000;Trip-planning styles and souvenir-purchase styles classify the informants into five groups. Group I, Low-involvement Travelers, were in EA, made unplanned souvenir purchases, and were minimal trip planners. These nine formed the least well-traveled group of any, and made the lowest average number of purchases of personal souvenirs, but the second highest of gifts. Textiles constituted 35% of their purchases;Group II, Laid-back Travelers, were seven minimal trip planners who made either planned or both planned and unplanned souvenir purchases. Selectiveness is apparent in the low average numbers of purchases in all categories despite high incomes. Textiles were 29% of their purchases;Group III, Centrist Travelers, made pre-planned trips but unplanned purchases. These five purchased the fewest gifts and few personal souvenirs, perhaps due to the unplanned nature of purchases and a low emphasis on family. Textiles constituted 30% of their purchases;Group IV, Goal-attainment Travelers, pre-planned their trips and made both planned and unplanned purchases. The average numbers of purchases of personal souvenirs by these eight were second highest of the groups. Half purchased more textiles than nontextiles as gifts. Textiles were 34% of their purchases;Group V, Eclectic Travelers, used combination planning for trips, and made both planned and unplanned purchases. The average numbers of states and foreign countries visited and purchases for self and for gifts by these 14 were the highest of the groups. Purchases of textiles, at 22%, was lowest of all groups;Future studies should include the associations of shopping companions, travel careers, work-related travel, and of independent income with: (1) purchase behavior; (2) amounts spent on self and on gifts; (3) reasons for an abrupt increase in numbers of purchases and amounts spent at the beginning of MA; and (4) why extensive planners spend more for souvenirs than minimal planners despite lower average incomes.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Luella Faye Anderson



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

254 pages