Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Agricultural Education and Studies

First Advisor

Robert A. Martin


This study was conducted to identify and analyze the perceptions of field officers, extension officers, and farmers regarding objectives, principles, teaching methods, teaching tools, and problems of Agricultural Extension Education in Swaziland;A sample of 50 field officers, 20 extension officers, and 50 farmers participated in this study. A survey instrument was designed and administered to the various groups. Data were statistically analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, analysis of variance, t-tests, Scheffe and Duncan procedures, and Pearson product-moment correlations;The average field officer was male, in his thirties, had a certificate in agriculture, was married, and had 9.9 years of work experience. The average extension officer was male, in his forties, had a diploma in agriculture, was married, and had 17.2 years of work experience. The average farmer was male, in his fifties, had at least some form of education, was married, and had 20.8 years of farm experience;The respondents considered the following to be the most important program objectives of extension: helping farmers to raise quality crops, teaching farmers to conserve the soil, and encouraging farmers to plan. The program principles which received the highest ratings were: encouraging teamwork among extension staff, using suitable teaching methods, developing problem-solving skills, and using farmers' needs as a basis for programming. Method demonstrations, result demonstrations, and field days were the highest rated teaching methods. Field support guides, agricultural research results, and tours were the highest rated tools of instruction. The problems of greatest concern were: wide area to cover, shortage of transportation, and farmers' reluctance to attend extension meetings;The respondents' perceptions of program objectives and principles, teaching methods, teaching tools, and problems based on region, academic qualifications, gender, marital status, and position consistently revealed significant practical differences although no statistically significant differences were found. Relationships between perceptions of respondents and their age, academic qualifications, and farm/work experience revealed low to moderate correlation.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Musa M. A. Dube



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

233 pages