Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Paul M. Muchinsky


This study was designed to examine the effects of expectations on the job search activity of university seniors. Participants included 370 graduating seniors (194 male, 171 female) at Iowa State University. The questionnaire was designed to measure attitudes toward job searching, expectation about the job market, and job search activity. Attitudes toward job searching was measured using the Career Locus of Control Scale (Trice, Haire & Elliott, 1989); the Job Search Self-Efficacy portion of the Outplacement Needs Inventory (Kanfer & Hulin, 1985); and the Job Seeking Confidence scale developed by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan (van Ryn & Vinokur, 1992). Expectations about the job market were measured with the Employment Outlook segment of the Career Exploration Survey (Stumpf, Colarelli & Hartman, 1983); and the Business Conditions portion of the Survey of Consumers. Job search activity was measured by asking students to indicate the onset of job search activity, the number of job search activities undertaken, the frequency of job search and the amount of time spent looking for a job;Cluster analysis was used to divide students into 6 groups based upon attitudes toward the job search and expectations about the job market. Comparisons were made among the 6 resulting clusters on job search activities and GPA. Manova was performed to determining whether the clusters differed in job search activity or ability (GPA). Results revealed that optimistic of students began their job search earlier than pessimistic students (p <.05) and that students with greater job seeking confidence also tended to report higher GPAs (p <.05).



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Anna Rebekah Erickson



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

128 pages