Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Agricultural Education and Studies

First Advisor

Julia A. Gamon

Second Advisor

Larry D. Trede


Purpose. This study focused on extension education outside the United States as perceived by extension educators and international graduate students of extension education. Specifically, the study described characteristics of the two groups, and documented their perceptions toward (1) policies and characteristics of the extension organizations, (2) educational needs of rural people, (3) agricultural extension program processes and practices, and (4) educational needs of international graduate students. In addition, the study focused on possible differences between the groups' perceptions and possible relationships between groups' characteristics and perceptions;Methods. Data were solicited from 96 extension educators and 128 international graduate students at 33 universities by means of a mailed questionnaire. Reliability, frequencies, t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and analysis of variance were employed to analyze the data;Findings. Results indicated that both groups perceived that extension program planners should be able to (1) develop an institutional framework, (2) document the extension program, (3) implement the program, and (4) evaluate the program. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in their perceptions for four out of fifteen processes and practices;Both groups supported the concepts that the agricultural extension organizations outside the United States should have an educational philosophy and mission, be within the university, use bottom-up approaches to program development, focus more on empowering people, and commit their resources to satisfy rural people's educational needs on scientific knowledge. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in their perceptions on seven out of 27 policies and characteristics;Both groups perceived that all 28 training items studied were needed by international graduate students and were important to be included in curricula intended for them. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in their perceptions on 10 out of 28 items assessing need and importance;Significant relationships were observed between extension educators' perceptions and their: years of work experience, years of extension work experience, age, and the interaction between academic rank and international experience. Significant relationships were observed between international graduate students' perceptions and their years of extension work experience, years spent studying in the United States, and degree program.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Ismail Eltigani Mohamed



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268 pages