Degree Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2004

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Veterinary Pathology

Major

Toxicology

First Advisor

Gary D. Osweiler

Second Advisor

Patricia A. Murphy

Abstract

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent of the fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium that contaminate corn-based foods. Exposure to hazardous levels of this mycotoxin has been associated with a broad variety of animal and human diseases. Relevant examples are leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) in horses, pulmonary edema and liver damage in swine, and esophageal cancer and neural tube defects (NTD) in humans.;The efficacy of the fumonisin B-glucose (FB-G) reaction in detoxifying fumonisin B (1713) was tested in swine intraperitoneal (IP) and dietary models. The FB-G reaction products are obtained by chemically reacting the primary amine group (NH2) present in FB molecules with reducing sugars such as glucose through the non-enzymatic browning reaction. In the IP model, acute and subacute doses of fumonisin B1 (FB1) were administered IP to test the efficacy of the fumonisin B1-glucose (FB1-G) reaction in detoxifying FB1 in swine.;In the dietary model, pigs were fed diets containing 528 mumol total FB/kg, 528 mumol total FB-G/kg (23% unreacted FB, 122 mumol total FB-G/kg diet) or 0 mumol total FB/kg for 15 d to test the efficacy of the FB-G reaction products in detoxifying FB. The results suggest that dietary FB-glucose products could substantially protect swine in instances of widespread FB grain contamination.;Future research should concentrate on exploring the feasibility of this detoxification strategy in swine operations as well as in human food-processing scenarios. Additional work is also required to determine if FB-glucose products can inhibit the enzyme ceramide synthase in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway, the relationship between this inhibition and the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, and the efficacy of FB-glucose products in preventing ELEM in horses and NTD in mice. Finally, the variability on the susceptibility of pigs to FB is worth studying. This variability might be the product of genetic polymorphism of the enzyme ceramide synthase or differences in FB absorption among different pigs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31274/rtd-180813-2899

Publisher

Digital Repository @ Iowa State University, http://lib.dr.iastate.edu

Copyright Owner

Guillermo Enrique Fernández Surumay

Language

en

Proquest ID

AAI3158332

File Format

application/pdf

File Size

165 pages

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