Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Joe P. Colletti


Selected field windbreak (shelterbelt) designs were evaluated to assess their cost effectiveness of providing additional crop production, carbon sequestration, and hunting opportunities.;In terms of additional crop production, a three-row mixed windbreak with extensive management and low cost is the most cost effective because it requires the smallest corn yield increases to break even. Using a sheltering effect of 12 windbreak heights, the required additional yield is 0.28 Mg ha -1 yr-1. A four-row spruce windbreak with intensive management and high costs is the least cost effective because it requires the largest corn yield increases that are 28 times larger than those of the mixed windbreak. Trees that grow faster and taller are more cost effective because they provide sheltering effect sooner and over larger distances allowing to break even with smaller yield increases that are more likely to be achieved.;In terms of carbon sequestration, a four-row cottonwood windbreak is the most cost effective because it accumulates the greatest amounts of above and below-ground carbon that allow it to break even with a lifespan as short as 30 years. Only a cottonwood windbreak accumulates enough carbon to break even at a comparison price of 10.48 Mg-1. A higher carbon price of 32.38 Mg-1 enables a mixed windbreak to break even. Spruce windbreaks (two and four rows) require higher prices to break even. Continuous CRP payments offset a significant portion of windbreak costs and allow more windbreaks to break even and at earlier times.;About 55% of agricultural producers in Northeastern Iowa indicated that there is potential for fee hunting in field shelterbelts and on adjacent lands. However, they think that the potential is either weak or moderate. Almost all producers (95%) currently allow hunting. They believe that hunting is more important in providing intangible benefits such as recreation/enjoyment and better stewardship than tangible ones such as additional income and economic opportunities for the local community. On average, the producers require 22.74 per visit to allow a party of four hunters to access their land to hunt pheasants. The compensation amount is influenced more by producers' attitudes toward hunting than by socioeconomic factors.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Robert Konrad Grala



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

138 pages