Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Motoko Lee

Second Advisor

Charles Mulford


A new perspective on the sociology of globalization is evaluated. It considers increasing inequality across the world to be a consequence of emerging globalized economy rather than an outcome of underdevelopment. The sample included 126 countries classified as low-income to low-middle-income countries by the World Bank. Regression analysis revealed support for exclusion and irrelevance for peripherized masses in the developing countries. Discussion centers on reconsidering the nature of the globalized capitalism to understand the impasse in development and development studies. The globalization is not seen as a purely economic phenomenon its an intensification of human interaction at all---financial, social, and cultural levels. As a result of the globalization, a condition of "exclusion and anarchy" exists in parts of the world where states emerging after independence were not strong enough to viably unite the civil society out of the mosaic of ethnic fragments bequeathed by colonial administrations;In the context of globalization, the second paper determined if Punjabi students in Pakistan share, as a group, an ethnic hierarchy and exhibit the same types of prejudice found in the West. The sample is 192 students at the Punjab College of Business Administration in Lahore in 1996. The students responded to a questionnaire in English, with questions nearly identical to those previously used by American and Dutch researchers. Principal components analysis revealed respondents' consensus on an ethnic hierarchy of out-groups in social distance. Factor analysis showed that these students distinguished among aversive, symbolic, and biological prejudice parallel to American and Dutch results. There were two subtypes of symbolic prejudice, one in reference to the Pakistani quota system (affirmative action) and another to its uneven regional and ethnic development. Principal component analysis showed respondents' consensus on types of prejudice as well as ethnic hierarchy. Discussion centers on reasons that a shared ethnic hierarchy and types of prejudice found in Western countries appear in this Islamic county as well.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Rehan Mullick



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

95 pages