Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Gary D. Phye


This study is based on focus group interviews with nearly 200 teachers at 30 Iowa high schools during the Spring of 1998. During the one-day site visits at each school, data was also collected from students, the principal, and the technology coordinator (where available). During focus group sessions teachers were asked about how they use technology, how they define technology integration, what motivates them to integrate technology, what barriers they face, how technology is changing teaching and learning, and what they believe the future holds for technology in education;Findings indicate that Iowa teachers are progressing well with technology integration. Iowa is ahead of the national average with most types of technology in the schools, including the ratio of students to computers. Teachers say they see technology as a tool to help them better accomplish their educational goals with students. They say technology changes both what they teach and how they teach;The enthusiasm Iowa teachers have for learning is the biggest factor motivating them to integrate technology into the curriculum. Teachers say they enjoy learning, and technology is an exciting new area for them to explore. Students are also enthusiastic about using technology as a tool to learn, and teachers say that enthusiasm for the technology translates into increased learning of content for their students;Teachers say they face some difficult barriers as they attempt to integrate technology into the curriculum, including inadequate training, inadequate access to technology, and lack of time to learn and use technology;Despite the barriers, there are changes occurring in teaching and learning because of technology in the classroom. Teachers say technology makes it possible for them to become a facilitator of learning rather than a lecturer. Both teachers and students say students are taking more responsibility for their own learning, and there are more opportunities for individualized and hands-on learning.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Lynn Kay Manternach-Wigans



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

289 pages