Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Animal Science

First Advisor

Joseph C. Cordray

Second Advisor

Jane A. Love


The effects of various protein ingredients (whey protein concentrate, beef gelling plasma, pork skin collagen, chicken skin collagen, and turkey skin collagen) utilized as a lean meat replacement in a model emulsion system and frankfurters were measured. The treatments consisted of a 1:3 ratio (1 percent protein ingredient and 3 percent water) and a 2:6 ratio (2 percent protein ingredient and 6 percent water) hydration ratio of the treatment ingredient to replace 4 or 8 percent of the lean in the formulation, respectively. The parameters measured included yield, thermal emulsion stability, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), pH, proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein) texture and sensory attributes. The smokehouse yield, raw and cooked pH, moisture, protein, L*, and a* of the 1 percent frankfurter treatments were equivalent to the control (P < 0.05). Various specific sensory attributes were revealed to be non-equivalent to the control by the replacement of the lean meat with collagen and water. None of the 1 percent poultry collagen treatments had significantly different (P < 0.05) water separation, fat separation, moisture, fat, protein, L*, a*, purge, peak force, and internal force values when compared to the control. All texture profile analysis parameters measured (cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness, hardness) from the poultry collagen (1 and 2 percent) were not statistically significant. No differences in consumer acceptance were observed when the 1 percent poultry collagen treatments were compared to the control. Minimal correlations could be derived between the model emulsion system and the frankfurter system. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations between puncture attributes, texture attributes, and sensory attributes were observed. The results indicated that various protein ingredients can be used in frankfurters to replace a portion of the lean while maintaining processing, proximate composition, internal color, and various texture characteristics. The hydration of 1 percent protein ingredient at a 1:3 ratio can be a cost-effective functional ingredient to replace 4 percent of the lean material utilized in processed meat formulations.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Jay Benjamin Wenther



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316 pages