Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Human Development and Family Studies

First Advisor

Carla Peterson


The purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to describe the quality of early childhood education in Sudan. The study was specifically designed to address the following research questions: (1) To describe Sudanese kindergarten programs' administration, teacher characteristics, teachers' perceptions of the National Early Childhood Curriculum, and program quality. (2) To examine the relation between program quality and kindergarten administration (i.e., private and governmental kindergartens). (3) To examine the relations among kindergarten quality and the following factors: program type, teacher education, teacher specialization, teacher experience, teacher training, acceptance of the National Early Childhood Curriculum, adult-child ratio, group size, length of school day, enrollment fees, exposure to prints, accessibility of materials, and parent-teacher communication. (4) To examine the relations among the rates and quality of parent-teacher communications, program related factors, and teacher characteristics.;The study examined 60 kindergartens in the three major provinces of the capital of Sudan: Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdurman. An adapted version of The Early Childhood Classroom Observation Scale (ECCOS; National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1991) was used to collect observational data. The ECCOS-A was used to observe classrooms, and the Classroom Demography Information Sheet was used to obtain information regarding program characteristics. Finally, the Teacher Questionnaire was used to assess head teachers' attitudes toward the National Early Childhood Curriculum. Both of the last two measures were developed for this study.;Results of the study have documented the following: (1) Teacher education with specialization in early childhood education or related fields could be considered the cornerstone in enhancing the quality of kindergartens in Sudan. (2) Teachers with more education and/or who had specialized training in early childhood education communicated more often with parents than did teachers with less education or teachers with no specialization or those who had specialized in fields unrelated to early childhood education. (3) Low adult-child ratio and group size are related to high-quality kindergartens. (4) The shortcomings of the curriculum were overwhelmingly documented as per teachers' perceptions and negative correlations with quality as measured by the ECCOS-A total scores.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Azza Moawia Habib



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167 pages