Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Agricultural Education and Studies

First Advisor

B. Lynn Jones


Saudi Arabia and Tucson, Arizona are both surrounded by desert and rely on groundwater. Both places also suffer from similar types of water shortage problems. The average water usage, in gallons per person per day, in Tucson is 160. In contrast, in Saudi Arabia this figure is 260. Respectively, these factors encouraged the researcher to investigate the educational roles in Tucson. The findings and experience gleaned from Tucson will be used in Saudi Arabia where the researcher is planning to pursue his career.;Information circulated to the Tucson public about water conservation demonstrates effectiveness in addressing issues related to water problems and the needs of citizens. With little information about water conservation being disseminated through the university curricula, media, agricultural education programs, and school districts in Tucson, formal venues play an unproductive role in the efforts to solve the water problem.;Exploring the need for both formal and informal educational forums established in Tucson, Arizona to address behaviors in water conservation could help determine how to establish similar programs for solving the water problem in Saudi Arabia with respect to culture, education, and level of economics.;Teachers' educational backgrounds and training may prove helpful and provide competence for teachers in addressing societal needs. Teachers and trainers agree that hands-on application and other valid teaching techniques and students' evaluations could be examined in order to improve the link between schools and the water problem. Courses in agriculture and biology, for example, have been found to have a direct impact on students' knowledge and information. Teachers, professionals, and the general public who participated in this study agreed on the importance of establishing water education issues in K-12 schools, community, and four-year colleges for long-term effectiveness.;It is crucial to understand the role of water to future development in Tucson. Both public education and higher education should focus on people needs and local problems for application not only information delivery. Overall the general public believed in applying the water sustainability concept toward water conservation.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Mohammad Sh. AL-Shayaa



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

189 pages