Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science




Exercise and Sport Science


The study had two purposes, one was to examine the differences of sport consumption behavior and sport consumption motives between American students and Chinese international students after controlling for team identification and demographic variables and the other was to explore the relationship of team identification and specific sport consumption motives with individual sport consumption behaviors of both Chinese and American students. A total of 326 students (172 American students, 154 Chinese international students with mean age 24±4.5 years) at Iowa State University participated in this study by completing questionnaires measuring seven motives from Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC), a measure of team identification from Team Identification Index (TIl) and measures of six sport consumption behaviors (past attendance, team merchandise purchase, print media consumption, television media consumption, web based media consumption and wearing of team apparel). MANCOVA and stepwise multiple regression were conducted. Results suggested that both Chinese international students and American students reported the highest score for level of television media consumption. After controlling for team identification and the demographic variables, Chinese international students significantly differed from American students only in past attendance. However, this only accounted for 2.4% of variance. There was no significant difference in the level of team identification between Chinese international students and American students. Level of identification with their favorite team was the most important variable affecting the six combined sport consumption behaviors. It was also the strongest factor in predicting five out of the six sport consumption behaviors (except for television media consumption) for Chinese and all the six behaviors for American students. In addition to team identification, a combination of specific motives also contributed to the explanation of specific consumption behaviors. Findings suggest that sport marketers need to employ team identification marketing strategies to effectively target American students and Chinese international students and team identification marketing strategies that have used for American students maybe effective at targeting Chinese international students also.


Copyright Owner

Jinzheng Li



OCLC Number


File Format


File Size

65 pages