Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Greenlee School of Journalism and Communication


Journalism and Mass Communication


"To determine whether media frames are the same as audience frames, this study interviewed farmers from Bohol, the first province to officially ban GMOs, about golden rice and investigated how Philippine print media framed GMOs, particularly golden rice, for five years of coverage. The study analyzed farmers' attitudes and the tone of coverage of golden rice and other GMO issues. This study found out that Philippine newspapers' coverage was very minimal (187 articles) and predominantly framed articles around regulatory concerns. Both regional newspapers were negative but national newspapers were split. Government, non-government organizations and business/industry were the top three sources mentioned in the articles. Although farmers had substantial access to both mass media and interpersonal sources, they considered interpersonal sources as their ""best"" source. Despite their use of sources, they knew very little about golden rice and other GMOs. However, farmers' attitudes toward golden rice tended to be neutral to positive. None of them had strong negative attitudes toward the transgenic rice. They were willing to plant if and when golden rice seeds become available to them. Farmers' neutral to positive attitudes toward golden rice did not come from their exposure to newspapers because they denied reading any GMO-related articles in any newspapers including the positively toned Manila Bulletin. These results suggest caution in drawing generalizations about farmers' attitudes toward GMOs based on information published in urban areas or official pronouncements. In the case of Bohol, an official ban did not represent the view of the farmers surveyed."


Copyright Owner

Shalom Mula



OCLC Number


File Format


File Size

110 pages