Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Landscape Architecture


Landscape Architecture


Landscape Architecture


Landscape restoration efforts deal with cultural (strongly human-influenced) as well as natural (less strongly human-influenced) landscape systems. These landscape restoration efforts attempt to provide positive interactions for human and non-human components of the landscape system while averting as many negative interactions as possible. This research study was conducted in order to meet three objectives. The first was to establish a working definition for "Living Landscapes" as an ideal combination of cultural and natural landscape systems. The second was to develop a set of goals and guiding principles for assisting landscape restorationists in creating and conserving "Living Landscapes." The third was to produce a listing and description of landscape places and projects that provide examples of the "Living Landscape" ideal. This work was developed by landscape professionals through theoretical discussion for use by landscape professionals in practical application. The theoretical discussion gathered input from landscape professionals working in landscape planning and design, landscape management and maintenance, and landscape education and academic research. The data was gathered using three research tools. An initial survey collected background data as well as opinions of characteristic terms used to define "Living Landscapes." An interactive workshop invited landscape professionals to further develop "Living Landscape" characteristics. The workshop also developed a set of goals and guiding principles that would work to create and conserve landscape systems according to the "Living Landscape" ideal. Finally, a second survey asked landscape professionals to list and describe landscape places and projects that promote the example of "Living Landscapes" through practical application. The results of both surveys, as well as the participation in the workshop, show that there is a great deal of interest among landscape professionals to improve the state of landscape systems. Without this continued interest, "Living Landscapes" are not likely to proliferate across the Midwest, in the United States, or anywhere else in the world. Landscape professionals seem to be willing to collaborate in landscape planning, design, management, and maintenance efforts, but need a basis to strengthen their work. This collection of reference information serves as a guide to the professional community to aid them in this work.


Copyright Owner

Marcus Andrew Johnson



OCLC Number


File Format


File Size

151 pages