Degree Type

Dissertation

Date of Award

2006

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Animal Science

First Advisor

Joseph C. Cordray

Abstract

Samples of different commercial brands (4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added and one nitrite-added) of three product types (frankfurters, hams and bacons) were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite quantity, and consumer acceptance. All samples contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (<1 ppm nitrite). A large variation in severity of lipid oxidation existed between product types within brands with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of products and brands were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings determined that variation existed;The effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder (VJP) and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics and sensory properties of emulsified frankfurter-style cooked (EFSC) sausages and hams over a 90-day storage period were investigated. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 mg/kg) control (C) were identified for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation between any TRTs and C or over time were identified. No differences (P>0.05) for Commission International D'Edairerage (CIE) L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed TRTs 2, 4 and C were redder and had better cured color than TRTs 1 and 3 at Day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that all TRTs 2, 3, and 4 were similar to the C;Four ham treatments (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were identified for this study. No differences (P>0.05) were identified between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b* and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. The C had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than TRTs 2 and 4 for combined days. No differences (P>0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that a high level (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31274/rtd-180813-218

Publisher

Digital Repository @ Iowa State University, http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/

Copyright Owner

Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar

Language

en

Proquest ID

AAI3243570

File Format

application/pdf

File Size

253 pages

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