Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science




Intercollegiate athletic programs are provided for student athletes to supplement their education. These extracurricular opportunities are thought to be very important in developing a well-rounded individual. Athletics expose student athletes to competition, team work, goal setting, and other experiences that contribute to being successful in later life (NCAA, 1992). Logically, it seems apparent that these opportunities should be provided equally to men and women participating in intercollegiate athletics since the resulting benefits of athletic participation should be gender neutral. Despite the obvious need for equality, a great disparity still exists in intercollegiate athletics in regard to opportunities provided for men and women (NCAA, 1992). In 1972, Congress took action in attempting to abolish the inequities that existed in educational programs in the United States. Title IX, part of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance" (Education Amendments of 1972, 1990). Prior to the passage of Title IX, gender discrimination practices could be openly practiced at schools and universities without any fear of recourse for employees or student-athletes (Gordon, 1982). Since the day Title IX became law, considerable debate has been associated with intent and implementation of the law (Jacob, 1993). Most of the problems have centered on the language used in the law and the various interpretations made by various agencies. The agency assigned to provide the standard interpretation for Title IX was the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) (Jacob, 1993). The Office of Civil Rights (OCR), part of the HEW, was assigned the responsibility of providing interpretation and determining compliance (Hogan, 1979).



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Kevin L. Sanger



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139 pages