Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Sociology and Anthropology


By the treaty negotiated at the close of the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Sauk (Sac) and Mesquakie (Fox) ceded their lands bordering the Mississippi River. Thirteen years and several treaties later,the tribes had ceded all their remaining lands in Iowa Territory to the United States government and they were relocated to a reservation in present-day Kansas. Abundant documentary evidence of these land transfers has survived. These documents have been the basis of many detailed studies by historians and ethnohistorians (Berthrong 1956: Gallaher 1916a, b: M. Green 1965, 1976: Hagan 1958: Kurtz 1986: Trennert 1981: Van der Zee 1914a, c). These researchers have concentrated on the political and economic history of the tribes. In contrast, few researchers have studied the documents for the locational information they contain. Until now, there has been no systematic search concentrating on Sauk and Mesquakie villages and associated Euro-Arnerican settlements of the 1832 to 1845 era. The research presented herein is an attempt to fill that gap. This project uses archival resources in an attempt to identify the specific geographical positions of Sauk and Mesquakie villages, Indian agencies, trading houses, and United States military posts. The purpose of this study is to lay the groundwork for future archaeological investigations by pinpointing historical locations. This research contributes to the State's preservation planning efforts by documenting a number of historic properties. The National Park Service -- the federal agency responsible for the stewardship of the country's cultural resources -- stresses the importance of evaluating the significance of an historic property in terms of its "historic context." The National Park Service recognizes that a property's significance "can only be determined in relationship to the historic development from which it emerged and in relationship to a group of similarly associated properties" (National Park Service 1986b: 6). This study examines a number of properties related to the Indian/Euro-American contact period.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Kathryn Elizabeth Gourley



File Format


File Size

303 pages