Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Agricultural Education and Studies

First Advisor

Greg Miller


The principal purpose of this dissertation was to explore supervision in agricultural education settings. The dissertation was divided into three specific papers that focused on some aspect of the supervisory process. The first paper presented the Escalation model for the supervision of agricultural instruction. The model is a growth continuum that consists of three levels. The supervisory models included in each level are placed along a continuum of structure and reward and risk. As the supervisor matures in the supervisory process, it is proposed that the model of supervision used should change. As their professional maturity increases and as the circumstances dictate, the supervisor will progress in an upward direction on the continuum and facilitate more teacher-directed models of supervision. With teacher-directed models of supervision, the teacher and supervisor may experience greater reward from the supervisory process.;The second paper focused on the extent to which teacher educators in agricultural education used selected models of supervision and the relationship between the level of supervision and supervisor maturity. The supervisors (N =145) who participated in the study devoted considerable time to supervision. The majority of them had received formal training supervision, had been a university supervisor for an average of 13 years, and had served, on average, as a cooperating teacher for two student teachers. There were no statistically significant relationships between selected indicators of supervisor maturity and the type of supervisory model used.;The purpose of this study was to explore student teachers' professional concerns. Agricultural education student teachers at Iowa State University communicated about non-teaching concerns, teaching concerns, gave advice, responded to questions, and shared lesson plans or ideas using an Internet based communication tool. Student teachers were mostly concerned with self-adequacy. Self-adequacy is primarily concerns related to subject matter knowledge, discipline, and administrative rules. In addition, the teaching concerns expressed by student teachers majoring in agricultural education were not dependent upon students' gender. Findings of this study were consistent with previous studies (Adams & Martray, 1981; Fuller, 1974) on student teacher concerns.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Carrie Ann Fritz



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

94 pages