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Doctor of Philosophy




The major purpose for the present study was to investigate relationships between philosophical preference and level of aspiration (LOA) in the United States and Egypt. Thirty-six statements, nine each representing Realism, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Existentialism were chosen to measure philosophical attitudes. Abdelfattah's Level of Aspiration Questionnaire was employed to measure subjects' LOA. Respondents in the investigation consisted of 100 American and 180 Egyptian students. Groups responded to the instrument in their native languages. The results indicated that pragmatists, pragmatic/existentialists, pragmatic/realists, and eclectics in both countries agreed in scoring lowest on "inclination to struggle" and "inclination toward superiority." These groups in both countries also scored high on "determination of aims and plans." The two groups differed to some extent in the relative scoring on "perseverance" and "outlook on life." Egyptians scored highest on "perseverance," while for Americans the highest score was on "outlook on life.";Existentialists in Egypt and America differed in that Egyptians did not score as low on "opposed to fate/not trusting in luck" as did Americans, but they did score relatively low on this factor (as did all Egyptian groups except idealists). Idealists in the two countries showed as many differences as similarities. Egyptian idealists scored highest on "taking responsibility and self-confidence," "opposed to fate/not trusting in luck," and "inclination to struggle." At the same time, they scored lower on "determination of aims and plans" and "outlook on life." American idealists, on the other hand, shifted in the opposite direction on "taking responsibility and self-confidence" and "opposed to fate/not trusting in luck." The two groups of idealists agreed in scoring higher in "inclination to struggle" than most other groups in both countries;Abdelfattah, C. Questionnaire for Level of Aspiration. Cairo: ElNahdda ElMessria, 1971a, 1971b.



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AbdelHady Elsayed Abdu



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108 pages

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