Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




The purpose of this dissertation is to present an analysis of the educational history and philosophy of five black educators who founded schools in the South between 1881, the year that Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute was established, and 1915, the year that Washington died, and who wrote published autobiographies during the same period. Specifically, the political and racial factors that influenced the programs of each school were examined, the development of six features of each institution--students, alumni, faculty, curriculum, extension, and fund raising--was traced from the founding of each school until the publication of the founder's autobiography, and the educational philosophy of each school founder as revealed in his autobiography was interpreted using the formal structure of philosophy (ontology, epistemology, and axiology);This study is organized into six chapters with the first five chapters devoted to an individual educator and the conclusions stated in Chapter 6. The educators and their institutions include: Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute (Ala.) between 1881-1901; William J. Edwards and Snow Hill Institute (Ala.) between 1893-1915; William H. Holtzclaw and Utica Institute (Miss.) between 1903-1915; Laurence C. Jones and The Piney Woods School (Miss.) between 1909-1913; and Thomas O. Fuller and Howe Institute (Tenn.) between 1902-1910;An examination of the educational theories and practices of these five educators did not reveal an exploitation of the aspirations of black students as some interpreters of black education between 1881 and 1915 have charged. Each educator, in his own way, assumed a responsibility for the educational uplift of his students and his community, and each believed that his educational program provided black students with a chance to be honest, self-respecting, and hard-working members of society. Each educator believed that education was the pathway for black people to reach their potential.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Arnold Cooper



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

439 pages