Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




This counseling analogue study compared the effectiveness of paradoxical and self-control interventions upon self-reported procrastination behavior among high school students. Fifty-eight subjects were classified according to double median splits on the dimensions of freedom or controllability of the procrastination behavior and resistance, operationalized as relatively negative attitudes and expectations about counselors in general. The resultant four treatment groups were as follows: high resistance, high freedom; high resistance, low freedom; low resistance, high freedom; and low resistance, low freedom. Subjects within these groups were randomly assigned to one of three types of treatment conditions: paradoxical interviews, self-control interviews, or no treatment control. Treatment groups were given two half-hour sessions of counseling, following the scripted procedures of Lopez and Wambach (1982), spaced one week apart. The control group received no counseling intervention, but participated only in an initial and terminal evaluation session, along with treated subjects;Results indicated that paradoxical and self-control groups showed greater improvement than controls. Initially more resistant subjects did more poorly at the conclusion of the study, regardless of type of treatment, then less resistant subjects. Expected interactions between resistance and treatment and between freedom and treatment did not emerge. Sex of subjects appeared somewhat important in that males responded more favorably to intervention than females. Significant differential effects upon subject perception of the controllability of their behavior did not emerge as a result of type of treatment administered. Limitation of the study and implications for counseling theory and practice were discussed;Reference;Lopez, F. G., & Wambach, C. A. Effects of paradoxical and self-control directives in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1982, 29, 115-124.



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Sandra Lou Davis



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136 pages