Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




The study set out to trace the development of County Agricultural Extension Councils in Iowa, and to draw implications for extension functioning in developing countries like Ghana. The method of grounded theory was explored in an attempt to contribute to theory development in the field of adult education;The councils were found to have evolved from the metamorphosis of indigenous institutions and organizations over a long period. The demonstration movement was identified as sowing the seed for the basic principles of extension organization with active participation of local people. The formation of farmers organizations, culminating in the Farm Bureau and its ties with Extension Services of Iowa, solidified the need for locally organized sponsoring associations for extension education. This need, in addition to conflicts of interests between Extension and Farm Bureau gave birth to the Extension Councils. A basic conclusion for third world situations is that County Extension Councils are more than products of intellectual genius. Another conclusion is that indigenous institutions and organizations of farmers need to develop in their own environments responding to local needs;The grounded theory methodology revealed that: social action resulting from a genuine appraisal of existing circumstances, basically the felt needs of a community, will culminate in dynamic growth and avoid stagnation. Thus, as organizations grow and develop, they learn to define what they need and what their direction and goals are. Additionally, this development is constantly being fed and redefined as times and conditions change.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Albert Daramanu Nuhu



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240 pages