Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Animal Science


The effects of the addition of selected inorganic phosphates to emulsion meat products were studied. All studies were designed to test basic theories regarding inorganic phosphates and meat under practical conditions. For the most part, evaluations were made on raw emulsions made in a small laboratory food chopper. In an attempt to stress the emulsions, low sodium chloride levels were frequently used. Evaluations included emulsion stability, soluble protein level, pH, emulsion viscosity and reflected surface color. At reduced sodium chloride levels, tetrasodium pyrophosphate and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate improved emulsion stability more than sodium tripolyphosphate or potassium tripolyphosphate. Preblending with tetrasodium pyrophosphate was not found to be detrimental to the stability of reduced sodium chloride meat emulsions. The addition of sodium hydroxide was similar to the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate on emulsion stability, but when combined with phosphates reduced soluble protein level and cooked product yields. The high emulsion pH due to sodium hydroxide and alkaline phosphates reduced cured color development; however, treatments were investigated which improved the cured color of phosphate-treated emulsions. In an attempt to reduce sodium in meat products, combinations of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride were studied. Increased magnesium chloride proportions increased soluble protein levels but decreased emulsion stability.



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Curtis Lynn Knipe



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254 pages