Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Child Development


The major purpose of the study was to investigate age-related differences in recall as a function of mode of presentation (blocked vs. random), of recall condition (the pressure vs. absence of a retrieval cue at time of recall), and of time of recall (immediate vs. delayed);A total of 96 second and 96 fourth graders participated in the study. The to be recalled items consisted of 20 pictured objects from five semantic categories: furniture, transportation, food, tools, and clothing, each category represented by four objects. The subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, which were combinations of mode of presentation (blocked vs. random) and recall condition (cued vs. non-cued);Six dependent variables were measured: item recall, category recall, within-category recall, recall time, number of category repetitions, and clustering in recall. A 2 (grade) x 2 (sex) x 2 (mode of presentation) x 2 (time of recall) x 2 (recall condition) analysis of variance with repeated measures on the time of recall factor was performed for each of the six dependent measures. For most of the dependent variables, immediate recall was better than delayed recall, performance of the fourth graders was superior to second graders, items presented in a blocked manner were recalled better than those presented randomly, and the presence of a retrieval cue at the time of recall enhanced recall performance. However, these main effects were qualified by interaction effects, most frequently a 3-way interaction between time, grade, and recall condition. Separate analyses of variance for each time of recall indicated that on most dependent measures, non-cued recall performance during immediate recall was better than during delayed recall for both second and fourth graders; however, in the cued condition the fourth graders showed better performance during delayed than during immediate recall, while the second graders performed better during immediate than during delayed recall;In general, the evidence of this and similar studies suggests that age-related changes in the contents of the knowledge system, variations in mode of presentation of to-be-recalled material, and increases in the ease with which information can be retrieved contribute to more efficient mnemonic functioning.



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Copyright Owner

Suhasini Ramisetty



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100 pages