Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Animal Science


Three experiments were performed to investigate the use of ground meat of various animal species in different formulations. In the first and second experiments, different levels of lean mutton meat (10%, 15% and 20%) and a constant percentage (20%) of mechanically deboned turkey (MDT) were mixed with lamb lean and lamb fat. In the third experiment, different levels of lean mutton meat (15% and 30%) were mixed with ground beef, ground pork and MDT, separately. The evaluations included: proximate analysis, pH determinations, packaging, storage conditions, oxidative rancidity, organoleptic evaluation, bacterial counts and quantitative measurement of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography (GC);Film type and storage time in the first experiment showed a highly significant effect on thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the refrigeration and/or frozen treatments. Vacuum packaging and frozen storage increased shelf life as compared with the highly permeable film and refrigerated storage. In Experiment II, the sensory scores showed that the addition of up to 20% mutton, 20% MDT and 60% lamb lean and lamb fat to the formulations had no effect on patties' quality traits. GC showed that concentration and area of volatiles were affected significantly by the type of meat treatments and the volatilization temperature, but not by storage time. Meat treatments had significant effects (p 0.05) by meat treatments stored under frozen conditions. However, refrigerated conditions showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TBA values over time. Meat combinations and storage time significantly (p < 0.05) decreased pH values in both refrigeration and frozen storage treatments.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Abbas Mohammad Yaghi



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151 pages