Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Veterinary Anatomy

First Advisor

Nani G. Ghoshal


The gross and microscopic anatomy of the blood vessels of the nasal cavity of 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) were described. The morphology of the carotid rete-cavernous sinus complex was also investigated on these animals;Gross study revealed that the nasal cavity was mainly supplied by the sphenopalatine and ethmoid arteries, and with contribution from their anastomoses with the superior labial and major palatine arteries. The external surface of the nose was supplied by the rostral and caudal lateral nasal arteries. The carotid rete received its blood from the internal carotid artery and the rostral rete branches which arise from the maxillary, and the external ophthalmic arteries;The venous drainage of the nasal cavity and its surrounding areas had five (5) connections with the ophthalmic plexus and cavernous sinus: (1) the infraorbital vein; (2) the medial superior palpebral vein; (3) the medial inferior palpebral vein; (4) the angularis oculi vein to the frontal vein and then to the supraorbital and dorsal external ophthalmic veins; and (5) deep facial vein to the ventral external ophthalmic vein. These veins were devoid of valves;Light and scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the nasal glands were compound tubuloalveolar, mixed type predominantly serous, located deep to, or at the same level as the arteries in the vestibular region. In the rest of the nasal mucosa the glands were simple tubuloalveolar mostly mucous and situated superficial to the blood vessels. The arteries were located deep to the veins, which formed a venous plexus in the respiratory and caudal vestibular regions. Both longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers were discernible in the wall of the angularis oculi and facial veins. The segment of the facial vein between the confluences of the superior labial and common trunk for both dorsal and lateral nasal veins had a very thick tunica media. The carotid rete branches were medium to small sized arteries and shared a common tunica adventitia with the cavernous sinus;Transmission electron microscopic study of the carotid rete-cavernous sinus complex revealed that the endothelial lining of the arterial wall and that of the vein had gap junctions. The internal elastic lamina was fenestrated.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Hadhoum Zguigal



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204 pages