Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dominick D. Pellegreno


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pet presence and counselor blindness on the efficacy of a counseling session;Counselor effectiveness was assessed by using three Counselor Rating Scales, the Confidence for Counseling Outcomes Expectancy Scale, the Continuation of Counseling Scale, and the Counselor Traits Scale;An Animal Affinity Instrument was developed to assess subjects' relationship to animals. The Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scales was utilized to assess attitudes toward disabled persons. Two sets of videotaped vignettes of the same counseling session were developed. The first set of videotaped vignettes was comprised of two treatment groups: client, sighted counselor without dog; and client, sighted counselor with dog. The second set of videotaped vignettes comprised the second two treatment groups: client, blind counselor without dog; and client, blind counselor with guide dog;A total of 162 subjects were used in this study: 99 undergraduate students and 63 graduate students from the Iowa State University and the University of Wisconsin-River Falls. The data analysis included the results of a Pearsons Product Moment Correlation on the Counselor Rating Scales. Homogeneity of treatment groups was assessed by running two analyses of variance to examine if the treatment groups were the same in terms of score distributions on the Animal Affinity Instrument and the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scales. The animal affinity and attitudes toward disabled persons were treated as covariates;The findings of this study indicated that the two treatment groups with the dog present were considered more effective than the two treatment groups without the dog present, for all but one of the subscales (perceived expertness). Counselor sightedness was viewed more effective than blindness for all the treatment groups. The results revealed that the way the subjects responded to the covariates animal affinity and attitudes toward disabled persons, singularly and combined, had no significant effect on the subjects' response to Counselor Rating scales and subscale scores.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

JoEllen McAdams



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

154 pages