Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

John Littrell


The purpose of this study was to determine what variables are associated with supervisors' referrals or nonreferrals of subordinates to an EAP. Variables selected for the study included variables found in prior research to be associated with referral or nonreferral and additional variables suggested by the human performance model of Gilbert (1978). Supervisors at the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT) were surveyed through in-house mail to measure their responses on variables found to be associated with referral or nonreferral. Supervisors were identified as referrers or nonreferrers based on the EAPs records. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which of the measured variables were associated with referral or nonreferral. A factor analysis was performed on the predictor variables to determine which, if any, of the predictor variables were significantly inter-related.;The present study has several implications for future research in the topic area. Gilbert's (1978) model was found to be of use in conceptualizing the problem of low supervisor referrals. His model suggested some new variables which have not been considered in past EAP research and which were found in this study to be associated with referral or nonreferral: (a) supervisors' perceptions of amount and type of feedback on their performance, in Gilbert's (1978) category of data; (b) supervisors' expressed need for additional training in EAP use, in Gilbert's (1978) category of knowledge.;In addition, this study confirmed the results of past researchers who found that the following variables were associated with referral: (a) supervisors being more knowledgeable of the EAP, in Gilbert's (1978) category of knowledge; (b) higher level of supervisor, an age-related variable in all six of Gilbert's (1978) categories; (c) lower level of occupational category of majority of employees supervised, in Gilbert's (1978) category of data; (d) more social distance between supervisor and subordinate, in Gilbert's (1978) category of motivation; (e) having an opinion of perceived support of the EAP received from management, the union, and their own immediate supervisor.;Reference. Gilbert, T. (1978). Human competence: Engineering worthy performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Janet Lovell Nord



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

138 pages