Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




The purposes of this study were to factor analyze the grading attitude of the industrial education instructors from midwestern state universities and to compare the factors of grading attitude of the instructors who differed in sex, number of years of college teaching, academic rank, highest education degree attained, number of college credits of educational evaluation completed, and type of courses taught;A seven-point Likert-type grading attitude survey was developed by the investigator. The randomly selected sample to whom the survey instrument was administered consisted of one hundred ninety-four industrial education instructors who taught at midwestern state universities. Factor analysis and regression analysis were used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses;Results included the following: (1) Grading attitude was comprised of three groups of factors, namely, philosophy, purpose, and method. Philosophy of grading had two factors: traditionalism and eclecticism. Purpose of grading had two factors: institution-oriented and student-oriented. Method of grading had three factors: norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and motivation. (2) There were no correlations among the factors of the grading attitude. (3) The instructors were more student-oriented and norm-referenced but less criterion-referenced than the instructors of higher academic ranks. (4) The instructors with master's degrees were more student-oriented but less criterion-referenced than those with doctoral degrees. (5) The instructors who had completed more than six but less than twelve credits of educational evaluation were more criterion-referenced than those who had completed six or less than six credits of educational evaluation. (6) There were linear relationships between all the demographic variables in the study and every factor of the grading attitude except traditionalism and eclecticism;Results of the study led to the conclusions that most instructors neglected the instructional purpose of grading and that the instructors' philosophy of grading, purpose of grading, and method of grading were not always consistent.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Anusorn Skulkhu



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

108 pages