Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the two methods, audio-tutorial and lecture/lab, for instruction of Iowa State University students in weight training, football officiating, skiing and archery. More specifically, the problem was to test eleven null hypotheses. Four hypotheses considered cognitive achievement differences, six hypotheses considered individual factor differences within subject areas, and one hypothesis considered the possibility of developing a formula that would predict student achievement;One hundred twenty-four students were involved in the study (60 in the audio-tutorial sections and 64 in the lecture/lab sections) at Iowa State University in selected classes from 1978 to 1983. Students in weight training and football officiating received a pretest and final written exam. Students in skiing and archery had a final exam only;Four statistical techiques were used to treat the data. They included Pearson correlation, t-test, analysis of covariance, and regression analysis. The dependent variable was achievement. Independent variables included method of instruction, precourse exam, attendance frequency, attendance duration, body weight, weight lifted, football officiating skill evaluation, archery target score, grade point average, high school rank, age, sex, and year in school;In testing the eleven null hypotheses, five were rejected. Audio-tutorial students in weight training attended class significantly more frequently than lecture/lab students. Audio-tutorial students in weight training stayed in class significantly longer than lecture/lab students. Audio-tutorial students in weight training had significantly greater body weight change than lecture/lab students. Audio-tutorial students in football officiating skill evaluation scored significantly higher than lecture/lab students. A prediction equation was written for weight training;A student questionnaire reflected a positive student attitude towards the audio-tutorial method. Data were collected to be used for changing and improving existing learning packages. It appears that the relaxed atmosphere, flexibility and freedom of study time provided by the audio-tutorial system contribute to the effects and differences shown.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Alan James Murdoch



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File Size

138 pages