Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Daniel Robinson


The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to follow up the investigation on the summer orientation program (Sanford, 1988) and measure its long-term effectiveness on retention, attrition, and academic performance of entering college minority freshmen; and (2) to do a comparison study of the initial experimental group with the entering freshmen of the recent year to examine the effectiveness of summer orientation programs on student retention and subsequent academic performance of minority students at a midwestern, land-grant science and technology university. Long-term was defined as continuous enrollment through five semesters; short-term is defined as one semester;The research involved examining previous high school performance, such as high school grade point average, ACT/SAT scores, and high school rank, summer academic performance for the Summer Enrichment Program participants, fall academic performances, retention from summer to fall, fall to spring, and retention over four semesters;The t-test was used to analyze information regarding sex of the participant. The ANOVA was used to analyze data regarding grade point averages, high school rank, and ACT/SAT scores. The chi-square was used to analyze data regarding retention. The regression analysis was used to compare the results of the two summer program group participants;The major findings of this study indicated that participation in a summer orientation program did have long term impact on academic performance but not retention. In regard to short term impact, there was a significant difference in academic performance but not for retention. The participants of the summer orientation program had lower grade point averages than those of students who did not participate in the summer orientation program. Findings revealed no significant differences in academic performance of retention existed between any of the groups with respect to gender;Reference. Sanford, M. R. (1988). The effectiveness of summer orientation programs on retention and subsequent academic performance of minority students: A look at SEP. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Marion R. Sanford



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

91 pages