Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Sociology and Anthropology

First Advisor

Robert E. Mazur


This study was undertaken to investigate the farming activities of female headed households in the Philippines. In particular. how resource-poor households utilize networks to access resources and technology;To accomplish the above purpose, a survey questionnaire was prepared in the Department of Sociology in Iowa State University. After approval. it was translated and taken to the sampled 8 rural barrios which had previously been stratified according to population and migration status. All female heads of households in these barrios were interviewed by females who were residents of the barrios;Results indicate that FHHs' and households' characteristics are important factors in accessing resources and technology. Among these characteristics are parental land status, origin, age, education and marital status of FHHs, household size and male:female ratio. Specifically, young FHHs had many laborers even if they did not join rotational work groups. FHHs with high educational attainment who joined agricultural related associations had high income. With the husband present, households had high income and consumed more harvested produce. Larger households had higher income when the FHHs joined many associations or when they joined rotational work groups;The advantage in joining agricultural related associations was qualified by the positive relationship with animals raised, value of harvest consumed and higher income. Likewise, joining few associations was related to more draft animals owned and the use of indigenous technology;Rotation work groups complemented the use of indigenous technology which was associated with larger household size that promoted the cultivation of more land. Similar to indigenous technology, attendance in training had a positive effect on cultivated area. Training benefit was also enhanced if this was conducted in small groups. On the other hand, extension visit was dysfunctional in that households that were not visited had higher income and consumed more harvested produce;On the basis of the results, two middle ranged theories are proposed. These are the theory of social loss and the religious connectivity theory.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Enrico Neri Imperio



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

212 pages