Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Dominick Pellegreno


The purpose of this study was to examine the wellness concepts of humor, Fitness History, cardiorespiratory after pulse, and happiness. The social area of wellness was exemplified by the concept of humor, the fitness area of wellness by the concept of Fitness History, the physiological area of wellness by the concept of cardiorespiratory after pulse, and the emotional area of wellness by the concept of happiness. The data were collected from 98 Iowa State University employees or students enrolled in the Iowa State University exercise clinic classes for the Spring Semester, 1991;Four humor instruments, one Fitness History instrument, one cardiorespiratory after pulse instrument, and one happiness instrument were used in the study;Factor analyses identified four factors in the Natural Setting Humor instrument and three factors in the Fitness History instrument. Strong reliabilities were found among the Natural Setting Humor instrument, inter-item factor correlations, and significant correlation matrices between the various humor, Fitness History, cardiorespiratory after pulse, and happiness components. T-tests indicated that older and married subjects exhibited less humor, fewer hours of exercise per week, and less happiness on assisting others and physical appearance factors, and Composite Happiness score. Males indicated lower coping humor scores and greater happiness on the physical appearance factor than did females. The analyses of variance indicated that the subjects who exercised 6-7-8 hours per week showed a significantly lower CAP than the subjects that exercised 4-5 or 1-2-3 hours per week. Multiple regression indicated that the strongest predictors of humor were marriage and "reads comics"; married subjects were less humorous and the subjects who took the time to read comics were more humorous. The strongest predictors of cardiorespiratory after pulse were gender, hours of exercise per week, feeling better with exercise, and the physical appearance happiness factor. Males had a lower CAP than females. The more hours per week subjects exercised, the lower their CAP was, 98% of all subjects "felt better with exercise," and subjects with higher physical appearance factor happiness scores had lower CAP scores;The results of this study provide evidence that the wellness concepts of humor, Fitness History, cardiorespiratory after pulse, and happiness are interrelated as components of wellness.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Kay Rutherford Bartels



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

202 pages