Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

James E. Sweeney


The primary purpose of this study was to examine factors that affected the implementation of a complex innovation--authentic assessment and the effect the professional development paradigm consisting of a training design (i.e., theory, demonstration/model, practice, feedback, and coaching) and support structure (i.e., study group and staff development specialists) had on the process. Its specific purposes included: (1) to determine the extent the professional development paradigm influenced the Levels of Use and Stages of Concern, (2) to determine what components of the professional development paradigm enhanced the implementation of the authentic assessment, and (3) to identify factors that hampered the implementation of the innovation;Data collected from Stages of Concern questionnaires, Levels of Use interviews, Staff Development Survey questionnaires, and Implementation Analysis Survey questionnaires were coded, frequencies counted, aggregated, and analyzed. The SoC Questionnaire was administered to 51 teachers in the fall and 50 teachers in the spring. Fifty teachers were interviewed using the Levels of Use interviews to determine their level of use and the effect the staff development process had in implementing a major innovation--authentic assessment. The Staff Development Survey completed by 41 teachers was used to determine the elements of the professional development paradigm that they felt had been most helpful in the implementation process. The feedback from the Levels of Use interviews and the Implementation Analysis Survey identified stressful issues of the teachers related to the implementation of the innovation;Major findings of this study include: (1) Seventy percent of the teachers were at mechanical or higher levels of use, which for the complexity of the innovation indicates the professional development paradigm has had a positive effect on the implementation. (2) Forty percent of the teachers moved through the Stages of Concern and were at the Impact concerns. (3) Demonstration was reported by the faculty as being the most helpful element of the training design while the support groups provided the structured format to assist in the implementation process. (4) Lack of time was identified as the most stressful managerial issue during the implementation of the innovation.


Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Ann W. Johnson



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

135 pages