Degree Type


Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Daniel C. Robinson


The intent of this study is to assess and compare the attitudes of five groups directly and indirectly related to Iowa State University, in regard to their attitudes toward athletics. The five groups are: Alumni, Faculty, Parents of Student-Athletes, Students and Student-Athletes. Each group consisted of 300 individuals. No existing questionnaire was considered appropriate for this study; therefore, one was constructed. Using the techniques of grounded theory, six different aspects of attitudes were identified from the literature on attitude theory and athletics: Belief, "Basking-In-Reflected-Glory," Benefit to Females, Benefit to Males, Competition, Facts, and Importance. These clusters were used in constructing the Athletic Attitude Inventory, which was sent with a demographics questionnaire, also created for this study, and a cover letter to each of the subjects. All groups except faculty had a higher percentage of return for females than for males. The group with the highest return-rate of all was the mothers of student-athletes group. In most cases the order of the groups from most positive in their attitudes toward athletics to the least positive were Student-Athletes, Parents of Student-Athletes, Students, Alumni, and Faculty. The variables of gender and location of high school graduated from were also examined. The gender variable showed significant differences for all clusters except Fact and Competition. Those who graduated from high school in Iowa did not show the expected higher degree of benefit to females compared to those who graduated from outside the state. The only cluster showing a difference between those who graduated from high school in Iowa and those who graduated from high school outside the state was the one showing identification with the school and its athletic teams and symbols.



Digital Repository @ Iowa State University,

Copyright Owner

Rosemary Clark Kellenberger



Proquest ID


File Format


File Size

259 pages