Campus Units


Document Type


Publication Version

Submitted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title



Hot stellar systems (HSS) are a collection of stars bound together by gravitational attraction. These systems hold clues to many mysteries of outer space so understanding their origin, evolution and physical properties is important but remains a huge challenge. We used multivariate t-mixtures model-based clustering to analyze 13456 hot stellar systems from Misgeld & Hilker (2011) that included 12763 candidate globular clusters and found eight homogeneous groups using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). A nonparametric bootstrap procedure was used to estimate the confidence of each of our clustering assignments. The eight obtained groups can be characterized in terms of the correlation, mass, effective radius and surface density. Using conventional correlation-mass-effective radius-surface density notation, the largest group, Group 1, can be described as having positive-low-low-moderate characteristics. The other groups, numbered in decreasing sizes are similarly characterised, with Group 2 having positive-low-low-high characteristics, Group 3 displaying positive-low-low-moderate characteristics, Group 4 having positive-low-low-high characteristic, Group 5 displaying positive-low-moderate-moderate characteristic and Group 6 showing positive-moderate-low-high characteristic. The smallest group (Group 8) shows negative-low-moderate-moderate characteristic. Group 7 has no candidate clusters and so cannot be similarly labeled but the mass, effective radius correlation for these non-candidates indicates that they zare larger than typical globular clusters. Assertions drawn for each group are ambiguous for a few HSS having low confidence in classification. Our analysis identifies distinct kinds of HSS with varying confidence and provides novel insight into their physical and evolutionary properties.


This is a pre-print of the article Chattopadhyay, Souradeep, and Ranjan Maitra. "Characterization of hot stellar systems with confidence." arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.05777 (2020). Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

The Author(s)



File Format


Published Version